Second Ottoman Capital Edirne

Second Ottoman Capital Edirne
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  • Yayınevi

    : YEM Yayın

    Yazar

    :Engin Özendes

    Baskı No

    : 2

    Baskı Tarihi

    : Eylül 2005

    Sayfa Sayısı

    : 178

    Baskı Tipi

    : Karton

    Dil

    : İngilizce

    Barkod

    : 9789757438816

    3 iş gününde kargoya verilir

Eski Osmanlı başkentlerinin 19. yy’daki görünümlerini dönemin fotoğrafları ile yansıtan dizinin bu kitabında Edirne, 19. yy sonu, 20. yy başındaki durumu ile gözler önüne seriliyor. Edirne’nin, eski gösterişli dönemlerinden sonra işgaller nedeniyle en zor günlerini, yeni başkent İstanbul nedeniyle de unutulmuşluğunu yaşadığı bir dönem olan 19. yy’da kent dokusundaki değişimi döneme tanıklık eden fotoğraf ve kartpostallarla gözlemek mümkün. “Osmanlı’nın ikinci başkenti Edirne“ dizide yer alan diğer iki kitap gibi gerek kent gerekse fotoğrafçılık tarihi açısından araştırmacılara zengin bir kaynak sunuyor. 

 

Engin Özendes Hakkında

 

Bursa’da dünyaya gelen Engin Özendes, Bursa Ticaret Lisesi’nden sonra İstanbul Sultanahmet İktisadi ve Ticari İlimler Akademisi’nde öğrenim gördü. 1976-81 yılları arasında sahibi olduğu aylık Yeni Fotograf dergisinin, 1978 ve 1980 yıllarında da yine sahibi olduğuTürk Fotoğraf Yıllığı’nın yazı işleri müdürlüklerini yaptı.
1976 yılında Türk fotoğraf tarihi ile ilgili araştırmalarına başladı. Bu yıldan itibaren Milliyet Sanat, Hürriyet Gösteri, Cumhuriyet, Yeni Yüzyıl gibi birçok gazete, dergi ve ansiklopedide fotoğraf üzerine yazıları yayımlandı. Sébah & Joaillier’den Foto Sabah’a: Fotografta Oryantalizm, Photography in the Ottoman Empire 1839-1919, Photographer Ali Sami 1866-1936, Türkiye’de Fotoğraf, Abdullah Freres Osmanlı Sarayının Fotografçıları Engin Özendes’in kitaplarından bazılarıdır. Çok sayıda TV programı yapan, yurt içinde ve dısında kisisel sergiler açan, düzenleyen Özendes, pek çok yarısmaya da jüri üyesi olarak katkı sağlamıştır. Fotoğraf araştırmaları nedeniyle, 1990’da Federation Internationale de L’Art Photographique (FIAP) tarafından kendisine Excellence FIAP (ESFIAP) unvanı verilmiştir.


Mimarlık, grafik tasarım ve sanat gibi birbirinden farklı kategorilerde yüzlerce kitap için tıklayın!

PREFACE

 

In 1826 a Frenchman named Joseph Nicéphore Niépce succceeded in obtaining the first

permanent image of the view from the window of his house in the city of Chalon after an

exposure time lasting several hours. Following Niépce’s death in 1833, his young partner Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre carried on his research, and his discovery of photography, called the Daguerreotype, was proclaimed to the world by the French Academy of Sciences in 1839.

This French invention was introduced to the East by adventurers, writers, painters, architects and travellers in search of archaeological ruins. They were eager to capture the fascinating sights of the Orient already known to them from engravings through the eye of the newfangled camera, which produced pictures of reality itself. Apart from Istanbul, that city so different from those of the West, they photographed towns, cities and ancient ruins all over the Ottoman Empire. For those interested in the region’s archaeological wealth, photography quickly became an indispensable tool.

As western travellers became more closely acquainted with this Muslim country, their interest in its society began to rival that in its ancient past. Human interest entered into their photographs, and now people were to be seen in front of monuments, in markets and bazaars and in the streets.

Gradually photographic studios began to open in the major cities of the empire, and Ottoman

photographers joined those from western countries. Studios multiplied and photography became widely known throughout the Ottoman lands. Photographs of people, not as accessories but for their own sake, became fashionable. Water sellers, butchers, barbers, sherbet sellers, chimney sweeps, boza sellers, porters and a host of other local figures were all depicted in their distinctive costumes.

As Ottoman photographers increased in number from the 1850s onwards, they began to open studios on the Grand’ Rue de Péra, the famous main street through the westernised district of Péra north of the Golden Horn.

The name Péra dated from Byzantine times and meant ‘opposite bank’, in reference to the opposite shore of the Golden Horn facing the walled city of Istanbul proper. The Turks called this district Beyo¤lu, and today the Grand’ Rue de Péra has become İstiklal Caddesi.

In Edirne, second capital of the Ottoman Empire, studios were established by photogra-phers such as Constantin Anghelides, E. Foscolo, D. Michailides, Miltiyadi, Aram Bardizban, Leonidas Nicolau, K. Panghelides and E. Popoff. Basile Kargopoulo, one of Istanbul’s

foremost studio photographers, opened a branch studio in Edirne, and subsequently went

into partnership with the local Edirne photographer E. Foscolo. In addition other Istanbul photographers from time to time bought up negatives of photographs of Edirne from

local photographers and made prints of these bearing their own names.

Publishing postcards of the city also became widespread. In the nineteenth century

postcards of Edirne were published by Isaac J. Canetti, B. Vafiades, Jacques Saül, A. Ilieff and Joseph N. Mitrani, and in the early twentieth century by bookseller M. fievki, Tüccarzade İbrahim Hilmi and F. Fettah. Following the Bulgarian occupation which began on

26 March 1913, Librairie Oltcheff and D. Bajdaroff produced postcards of Edirne in Sofya.

The nineteenth century marked the beginning of troubled times for Edirne, when former days of pride and prosperity were forgotten in a series of enemy occupations. Although Istanbul had succeeded Edirne as capital way back in the fifteenth century, the city had retained a privileged status over the intervening centuries, the sultan often moving his court here for months at a time. But now Edirne was both embattled and forgotten. It

became guardpost of the fluctuating western frontier, and the first target of attacks on Anatolia. But even though its days of glory were forgotten, the magnificent view of the city from afar, its slender minarets pointing skywards, and the enchanting sight of Selimiye Mosque could not be erased.

When Bursa, first capital of the Ottoman Empire, handed on the baton to Edirne, was this only because the latter had been conquered? What were the events and developments which led up to the city being appointed capital? A wealth of material illustrating the changes in Edirne’s urban texture in the form of photographs dating from the second half of the

nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, introduced by an account of the earlier history of the city could help to throw light on the fascinating past of this city. So this book was born.

I wish to thank my friend Pierre de Gigord, who has always been so generous with his assistance, for kindly agreeing to bring together our collections of photographs for this

book, and for his wholehearted interest in the project.

 

Engin Özendes, ESFIAP

Istanbul, 1999

CONTENTS

 

PREFACE 

LEGEND OF THE CITY 

City of rivers 

HISTORY OF THE CITY 

The Odrys 

Transit point 

The Roman period 

Hadrianopolis 

THE OTTOMAN PERIOD 

Hadrianopolis becomes Edirne 

The Ottoman Dar-ül Mülk 

Constantinople becomes capital 

Edirne’s golden age 

Destruction and decline 

Frontier city 

THE BUILDINGS

Yıldırım Bayezid Mosque 

Eski Mosque 

Muradiye Mosque 

Üç fierefeli Mosque 

Sultan Bayezid Mosque complex 

Selimiye Mosque 

Edirne Palace 

Bridges 

Kervansarays 

Vernacular architecture 

COMMERCIAL LIFE 

Bazaars 

Tradesmen and shopkeepers 

CULTURAL LIFE 

Door onto the West

Kırkpınar oil wrestling 

Edirne red and Edirne work 

Festivals 

PROLOGUE 

THE PHOTOGRAPHERS 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

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